Taking the P (and the N)

SpirulinaUrine is a problem. Huge volumes are flushed, with fresh water, into the world’s sewage systems and then enormous volumes of yet more water are used to treat the waste along with solids. However, writing in a forthcoming issue of the Inderscience publication, International Journal of Biotechnology (2008, 10, 45-54), fellow journalists can email me if they want an advance copy of the paper) researchers in China and Russia describe how microbes could be used to convert liquid urine into a phosphorus and nitrogen rich biomass for use as feed, fertilizer and fuel.

Bioengineer Hong Liu of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and colleagues Chenliang Yang, Ming Li, and Chengying Yu are working with Gurevich Yu, of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, in Krasnoyarsk, to develop a more environmentally benign and potentially useful method for handling urine.

The researchers point out that the direct discharge of urine into lakes and rivers causes eutrophication because of the high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen. Treating human urine to make it safe to discharge into water is difficult and produces large amounts of waste by-product because urine is a complex mixture of compounds.

The researchers have now turned to the blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, well-known, but controversial, as a health food supplement with claims of beneficial effects on cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Advocates also point to clinical evidence of benefits in treating malnourishment and anaemia in children with and without HIV, in protecting the heart from the toxic effects of the anticancer drug doxorubicin in chemotherapy, and even in preventing hay fever.

Spirulina platensis, now classified as Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont does indeed contain several vitamins and minerals in large quantities, has a high protein content, and contains just 5-6% of good quality fat. Previous researchers have shown that this alga can grow on nitrogen-derived from urea (the nitrogen-containing component of urine) to release oxygen and produce solid biomass as it does so.

Liu and colleagues have now optimized the alkalinity of the fermentation mixture of Spirulina platensis to pH 9.5 as well as determined the best urine dilution ratio for most rapid growth. They warmed the brew to between 28 and 30 Celsius and bathed it in red and green light from an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This stimulated metabolic activity. They were able to convert 99.99% of urine samples at the optimum dilution into solid biomass using Spirulina.

“Our future focus will be to make Spirulina platensis consume the nutrient component more quickly and to obtain more biomass,” the researchers say. They add that, “Spirulina platensis can be used as fertilizer, bait, and even a food and health product, is of great economic value.”

There could be a large market for urine-made Spirulina as an agricultural fertilizer or fish bait but perhaps this particular production method will not suit health food advocates. In fact, I’d go so far as to say they really are taking the P.

Research Blogging IconYang, C., Li, M., Yu, C., Yu, G., & Liu, H. (2008). Consumption of nitrogen and phosphorus in human urine by Spirulina platensis International Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (1) DOI: 10.1504/IJBT.2008.017987

8 thoughts on “Taking the P (and the N)”

  1. Hello David!
    Your article was so interesting for me. I’ve studies water management and I have conducted some experiments on growing Scenedesmus sp. with human urine. but the performance was not as well as you mentioned about Spirulina. Could you please send me the full text article?
    Your kind attention is already appreciated.

    Thank you

  2. Sir please sent me a advanced copy of this document.It would be very helpful for me and I will be very grateful.
    — john.

  3. Via email following queries by DB

    In terms of the applications on the ground, the blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis is more suitable to be used as a fertilizer or fish bait, for it is difficult for people to accept alga cultivated with the human urine as the substrate as food. However, it cannot be denied that there are large amounts of beneficial substances in Spirulina platensis.

    As for pathogens, the alga definitely has to be disinfected before being used to prevent bacterial pollution. As one kind of biological energy, the Spirulina platensis contains an enzyme that can generate hydrogen energy.

    The alga we cultivated lived on the simulated urine rather than the real urine, therefore, we cannot confirm whether there is any heavy metal accumulation in the alga.

    Best regards,
    Liu Hong

  4. By sheer coincidence, there is a paper highlighted by the American Chemical Society press office this week that discusses the issue of cardiotoxicity and chemotherapy with doxorubicin. Maybe it’s time to do some serious testing with Spirulina for this putative benefit.


  5. Yes, John, I was going to mention the fact that many menopausal women use hormone replacement therapy and those products are generally derived from the urine of the female horse.


  6. Dave,

    While it might offend the sensibilities of the most who live in denial, we eat the plants the greedily soak up the nutrients left behind by animals that use our gardens and farms as a convenient loo. This does not even address the decaying carcasses of creatures that don’t get a proper burial or cremation (not discussing the merits of “proper” here).

    I say, why not? It’s just a scientific extension of what has been happening for billions of years. Besides, those of us who drink martinis are drinking the waste products of a certain fauna.

    Finally, use it as a fuel? I rather fancy thinking of my car’s fuel tank as yet another powder room.

    Good article.

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