Top 100 endangered species we don’t exploit

A new list of the 100 species most likely to become extinct soon is the result of many years work by 8000 scientists. Sadly, the list is filled with flora and fauna that humans apparently have no use for. Will we save them or do we as a species only really care about those organisms that we exploit for our own ends? You can read the “Priceless or Worthless?” report here complete with stunning photographs of many of the seriously endangered species discussed.

According to Jonathan Baillie Director of Conservation at the Zoological Society of London, one of those 8000 international collaborating scientists:

“The donor community and conservation movement are leaning increasingly towards a ‘what can nature do for us’ approach, where species and wild habitats are valued and prioritised according to the services they provide for people. This has made it increasingly difficult for conservationists to protect the most threatened species on the planet,” he says. “While the utilitarian value of nature is important conservation goes beyond this. Do these species have a right to survive or do we have a right to drive them to extinction?”

The top 100 list was revealed for the first time at the World Conservation Congress in South Korea, a meeting of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Photo features Brachyteles hypoxanthus Photo by Andrew Young.

Scientific Name Common Name Category Population Threats to Survival
Abies beshanzuensis Baishan Fir Conifer 5 mature individuals Agricultural expansion and fire
Actinote zikani butterfly Unknown, one population remaining Habitat degradation due to pressure from human populations
Aipysurus foliosquama Leaf scaled sea-snake sea-snake Unknown, two subpopulations remain Unknown – likely degradation of coral reef habitat
Amanipodagrion gilliesi Amani Flatwing butterfly <500 individuals est. Habitat degradation due to increasing population pressure and water pollution
Antilophia bokermanni Araripe Manakin bird 779 individuals (est 2010) Habitat destruction due to expansion of agriculture and recreational facilities and water diversion
Antisolabis seychellensis Seychelles earwig earwig Unknown (declining) Invasive species and climate change
Aphanius transgrediens freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Competition and predation by Gambusia and road construction
Aproteles bulmerae Bulmer’s Fruit Bat bat 150 individuals (est) Hunting and cave disturbance
Ardea insignis White bellied heron bird 70-400 individuals Habitat destruction and degradation due to hydropower development
Ardeotis nigriceps Great Indian Bustard bird 50 -249 mature individuals Habitat loss and modification due to agricultural development
Astrochelys yniphora Ploughshare tortoise / angonoka tortoise 440-770 Illegal collection for international pet trade
Atelopus balios Rio pescado stubfoot toad toad Unknown (declining) Chytridiomycosis and habitat destruction due to logging and agricultural expansion
Aythya innotata Madagascar Pochard bird approximately 20 mature individuals Habitat degradation due to slash-and-burn agriculture, hunting, and fishing / introduced fish
Azurina eupalama Galapagos damsel fish pelagic fish Unknown (declining) Climate Change – oceanographic changes associated with the 1982 / 1983 El Nino are presumed to be responsible for the apparent disappearance of this species from the Galapagos
Bahaba taipingensis Giant yellow croaker pelagic fish Unknown (declining) Over-fishing, primarily due to value of swim-bladder for traditional medicine – cost per kilogram exceeded that of gold in 2001
Batagur baska Common Batagur/ Four-toed terrapin turtle Unknown (declining) Illegal export and trade from Indonesia to China
Bazzania bhutanica liverwort Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction due to forest clearance, overgrazing and development
Beatragus hunteri Hirola antelope < 1000 individuals Habitat loss and degradation, competition with livestock, poaching
Bombus franklini Franklin’s Bumble Bee bee Unknown (declining) Disease from commercially bred bumblebees and habitat destruction and degradation
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Northern muriqui primate < 1,000 individuals Habitat loss and fragmentation due to large-scale deforestation and selective logging
Bradypus pygmaeus Pygmy sloth sloth <500 individuals Habitat loss due to illegal logging of mangrove forests for firewood and construction and hunting of the sloths
Callitriche pulchra freshwater plant Unknown (declining) Exploitation of the species’ habitat by stock, and modification of the pool by local people
Calumma tarzan Tarzan’s chameleon chameleon Unknown Habitat destruction for agriculture
Cavia intermedia Santa Catarina’s guinea pig guinea pig 40-60 individuals Habitat disturbance and possible hunting; small population effects
Cercopithecus roloway Roloway Guenon primate Unknown hunting for consumption as bushmeat, and habitat loss
Coleura seychellensis Seychelles sheath-tailed bat bat <100 mature individuals (est 2008) Habitat degradation and predation by invasive species
Cryptomyces maximus fungus Unknown (declining) Limited availability of habitat
Cryptotis nelsoni Nelson’s small-eared shrew shrew Unknown (declining) habitat loss due to logging cattle grazing, fire and agriculture
Cyclura collei Jamaican iguana iguana Unknown (declining) Predation by introduced species and habitat destruction
Dendrophylax fawcettii Cayman islands ghost orchid orchid Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to infrastructure development
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Sumatran rhino rhino <250 individuals Hunting for horn -used in traditional medicine
Diomedea amsterdamensis Amsterdam Island albatross bird 100 mature individuals Disease and incidental capture in long-line fishing operations
Diospyros katendei tree 20 individuals, one population High pressure from communities for agricultural activity, illegal tree felling, habitat degradation due to alluvial gold digging and small population
Dipterocarpus lamellatus dipterocarp (tree) 12 individuals Habitat loss and degradation due to logging of lowland forest and creation of industrial plantations
Discoglossus nigriventer Hula painted frog frog Unknown (recent rediscovery in 2011) Predation by birds and range restriction due to habitat destruction
Discorea strydomiana Wild Yam yam 200 individuals Collection for medicinal use
Dombeya mauritiana flowering plant Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction due to encroachment by alien invasive plant species and cannabis cultivation
Elaeocarpus bojeri flowering plant <10 individuals Small population and degraded habitat
Eleutherodactylus glandulifer La Hotte Glanded Frog frog Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture
Eleutherodactylus thorectes Macaya Breast-spot frog frog Unknown Habitat destruction due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture
Eriosyce chilensis Chilenito cactus <500 individuals Collection of flowering individuals
Erythrina schliebenii coral tree flowering tree < 50 individuals Limited habitat and small population size increasing vulnerability to stochastic events
Euphorbia tanaensis semi-deciduous tree 4 mature individuals Illegal logging and habitat degradation due to agricultural expansion and infrastructure development
Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Spoon-billed sandpiper bird < 100 breeding pairs Trapping on wintering grounds and land reclamation.
Ficus katendei tree (ficus) < 50 mature individuals Agricultural activity, illegal tree felling and habitat degradation due to alluvial gold digging
Geronticus eremita Northern Bald Ibis bird 200-249 mature individuals Habitat degradation and destruction, and hunting
Gigasiphon macrosiphon flowering tree 33 mature individuals Timber extraction and habitat degradation due to agricultural encroachment and development, seed predation by wild pigs
Gocea ohridana mollusc Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation due to increasing pollution levels, off-take of water and sedimentation events
Heleophryne rosei Table Mountain ghost frog frog Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation due to invasive plants and water abstraction
Hemicycla paeteliana mollusc Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction due to overgrazing and trampling by goats and tourists
Heteromirafra sidamoensis Liben Lark bird 90- 256 individuals Habitat loss and degradation due to agricultural expansion, over-grazing and fire suppression
Hibiscadelphus woodii hibiscus Unknown Habitat degradation due to feral ungulates and invasive introduced plant species
Hucho perryi (Parahucho perryi) Sakhalin taimen salmonid Unknown (declining) Overfishing (sport fishing and commercial bycatch) and habitat loss from damming, agriculture and other land use practices.
Johora singaporensis Singapore Freshwater Crab crab Unknown Habitat degradation – reduction in water quality and quantity
Lathyrus belinensis sweet-pea <1,000 (2010 est) Habitat destruction due to urbanisation, over-grazing, conifer planting and road widening
Leiopelma archeyi Archey’s frog frog unknown but declining Chytridiomycosis and predation by invasive species
Lithobates sevosus Dusky gopher frog frog 60-100 individuals (est 2003) Fungal disease and habitat limitation due to climate change and land-use changes
Lophura edwardsi Edward’s pheasant bird Unknown Hunting and habitat loss
Magnolia wolfii magnolia Unknown (declining) Isolation of species and low regeneration rates
Margaritifera marocana mussel <250 individuals (2010 est) Habitat degradation and disturbance due to pollution and development
Moominia willii mollusc < 500 individuals  Invasive species and climate change
Natalus primus Cuban greater funnel eared bat bat <100 individuals (est 2005) Habitat loss and human disturbance
Nepenthes attenboroughii Attenborough’s Pitcher Plant carnivorous plant Unknown Poaching
Neurergus kaiseri Luristan newt newt <1000 mature individuals Illegal collection for pet trade
Nomascus hainanus Hainan Gibbon primate < 20 individuals Hunting
Oreocnemis phoenix Mulanje Red Damsel butterfly Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction and degradation due to drainage, agricultural expansion and exploitation of forest
Pangasius sanitwongsei Pangasid catfish freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Overfishing and collection for aquarium trade
Parides burchellanus butterfly < 100 individuals Habitat degrdation due to pressure from human populations and range restriction
Phocoena sinus Vaquita porpoise <200 individuals and declining Incidental capture in gillnets
Picea neoveitchii conifer Unknown (declining) Forest destruction
Pinus squamata Qiaojia Pine Conifer < 25 mature individuals Limited distribution and small population size
Poecilotheria metallica Peacock Parachute Spider spider Habitat loss and degradation as a result of deforestation, firewood collection and civil unrest
Pomarea whitneyi Fatuhiva monarch butterfly 50 individuals Predation by introduced species – Rattus rattus and feral cats
Pristis pristis Common Sawfish sawfish Unknown (declining) Exploitation – has removed the species from 95% of its historical range
Prolemur simus Greater bamboo lemur primate 100-160 individuals Habitat destruction due to slash-and-burn agriculture, mining and illegal logging
Propithecus candidus Silky Sifaka primate 100 -1,000 individuals Hunting and habitat disturbance
Psammobates geometricus Geometric tortoise tortoise Unknown Habitat destruction and degradation, and predation
Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Saola saola (bovid affinities) Unknown Hunting and habitat destruction
Psiadia cataractae flowering plant Unknown Habitat degradation and destruction due to development project and alien invasive plant species
Psorodonotus ebneri Beydaglari Bush-cricket cricket Unknown Climate change, habitat loss
Rafetus swinhoei Red River giant softshell turtle turtle 4 known individuals Hunting for consumption and habitat destruction and degradation as a result of wetland destruction and pollution
Rhinoceros sondaicus Javan rhino rhino < 100 individuals Hunting for traditional medicine and small population size
Rhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkey primate < 200 individualsH habitat loss and hunting. Known from only a few records in small area of habitat ( less than 10 square km),
Rhizanthella gardneri West Australian underground Orchid orchid < 100 individuals Land clearance for agriculture (96% habitat cleared to date), climate change and salinisation
Rhynchocyon spp. Boni Giant Sengi sengi Unknown (declining) Highly restricted habitat and distribution, security issues, oil development in area with associated increase in human population in area
Risiocnemis seidenschwarzi Cebu frill-wing damsel-fly Unknown (declining) Habitat degradation and destruction.
Rosa arabica flowering tree Unknown (declining) Domestic animals grazing, climate change and drought, medicinal plant collection and restricted range
Salanoia durrelli Durrell’s Vontsira vontsira (small carnivore) Unknown (declining) Habitat loss
Santamartamys rufodorsalis Red-crested tree rat rat Unknown Habitat loss through urban development and coffee cultivation
Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis Red-finned blue eye freshwater fish 2,000 – 4,000 individuals Predation by introduced species
Squatina squatina Angel shark shark Unknown (declining) Benthic trawling
Sterna bernsteini Chinese crested tern bird < 50 mature individuals Egg collection and habitat destruction
Syngnathus watermeyeri Estuarine Pipefish (River Pipefish) pipefish Unknown (declining) Construction of dams altering river flows and flood events into estuaries
Tahina spectabilis Suicide Palm palm 90 individuals Habitat loss due to fires, logging and agricultural developments
Telmatobufo bullocki Bullock’s false toad toad unknown Habita destruction as a result of energy development
Tokudaia muenninki Okinawa Spiny Rat rat unknown (declining) Habitat loss and predation by feral cats
Trigonostigma somphongsi Somphongs’s rasbora freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Habitat loss and degradation from farmland conversion and urbanization
Valencia letourneuxi freshwater fish Unknown (declining) Habitat destruction, water abstraction and agressive interaction with Gambusia
Voanioala gerardii Forest Coconut palm < 10 individuals Harvesting for consumption of palm heart and deforestation
Zaglossus attenboroughi Attenborough’s Echidna echidna Unknown Habitat modification and degradation due to logging, agricultural encroachment shifting cultivation and hunting by local people

(Table formating thanks to http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/threatened-species100.html I now have the original spreadsheet of this data from ZSL)

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